For as long as I can remember I have been driven to question everything because the truth has been hidden from us for reasons we cannot even imagine. The thought was ingrained in my nature since before I learned what or how to think.
I never understood it as I went through each phase of the relentless programming we are all exposed to in school, in families, in culture, in history books, in politics and even in religions. For many years it was a journey I took alone as no one seemed to share my skepticism or cynicism or pessimism or whatever you may want to call it.
When I was very young I began a lifelong avocation of collecting old dictionaries, in particular the Encyclopedic Dictionaries of the 1800's. That was where I began to notice the first subtle and then pronounced changes in how words were being used, and defined, and then redefined.
To a student of old dictionaries the difference between 19th century and 20th century definitions for the same words was dramatic and shocking so many liberties were used in altering common definitions. It seemed as if history was being bent in the English usage to accommodate a history that didn't really exist.
The Native Americans have a wonderful term with some very dark connotations called "shape shifting" in which things morphed into something entirely different from what you thought you were seeing. It was mostly used when describing the powers of the ’ánt’įįhnii, or witches from the dark side in Navajo.
These shape shifters or skin walkers altered reality to achieve their heinous goal and they date back to the First Emergence, the dawning of the age of man. They are feared because they are murderous and full of evil.
Could it be that our very own history, culture, religion and laws of God and nature are caught up in the relentless quest of the dark side to gain the favor and then dominance over an unsuspecting public.
My search led me to several generations of Indigenous traditional spiritual leaders, to theologians, to ancient Greek philosophers, to ancient Chinese mystics and to the world of Druids and magic in search of truth.
Early on it was clear that history was not a particularly viable source of truth because the vast majority of historical accounts were written to defend or justify a person, principle, practice, philosophy or precept. Bending the truth to justify a morally or ethically bankrupt idea was in vogue. It didn't matter what field it was used, there was penetration by the dark side into practically all aspects of humanity.
No where was this more evident than in the ancient field of metaphysics whose definition is not even remotely recognizable today. In fact, in barely 100 years the metaphysical definition has been turned upside down.
Let me give you an example.
Today most people view metaphysical activity as new age gobble de gook, relating to things that are thought to exist but cannot be seen or proven. It is a definition meant to undermine all that it encompasses. The very nature of the definition brings into doubt the veracity of anything that could be learned or extracted.
Yet over 100 years ago it meant something a great deal more.
Here is the 1906 definition from my five volume dictionary:
The New American Encyclopedic Dictionary
An Exhaustive Dictionary of the English Language
Practical and Comprehensive
GIVING THE FULLEST DEFINITION
(ENCYCLOPEDIC IN DETAIL),
THE ORIGIN, PRONUNCIATION AND USE OF WORDS.
[Yes that is the name of the 4,731 page dictionary and that length is before the last century of advances in science, medical, technology, computers and everything else. Today Webster's New World Dictionary has compressed the old and new information into 1,692 pages, a loss of 3,039 pages of definitions.]
1. History & Philosophy; A term popularly employed to denote a science dealing with subjects incapable of being dealt with by physical research. Broadly viewed, the Aristotelian metaphysic was the science of the first principles of being, the science of the first principles of knowing, and the science of God, as the beginning and ending of all things; and these three were the foundation of scholastic philosophy, which found its highest expression in Thomas Aquinas. Metaphysics "is made by him conversant with being as such and its modifications. In itself each ens is res and unum; in distinction from others it is aliquid; as in harmony with the action of the knowing faculties, it is verum; and as harmonizing with the will, it is bonum." The Roman metaphysic of the present day is, to a great extent, Thomist, and is divided into General, or Ontology, and Special, embracing Cosmology, Psychology, and Natural (as distinguished from Moral and Dogmatic) Theology. The Leibnitzo-Wolfian metaphysic is noteworthy for its rationalistic tendency. Its ontology treats of the existence in general; its rational psychology, of the soul as a simple non-extended substance; its cosmology, of the world as a whole; and its rational theology, of the existence and attributes of God. The Metaphysic of Kant was rationalist. Summarizing the remarks accompanying his notice of the course for 1765, Wallace says:
"In the course on Metaphysics the early lectures would deal with experiential Psychology, where, avoiding all mention of a soul, a reasoned account would be given of the facts or phenomena of the mental life. Going on next to the theory of living bodies (the Biology of the period), and thirdly to Cosmology, or the theory of the material world, he would come in the fourth place to Ontology, which expounds the general properties of things, and includes rational Psychology (where the idea of soul or spirit is brought in), and would terminate with rational Theology." -- Kant, p. 131
2. Supernatural arts. (Cockeram.)
Supernatural acts: Being beyond, above or exceeding the powers or laws of nature. It is a stronger term than preternatural, and is frequently used as synonymous with miraculous.
"Cures, wrought by medicines, are natural operations; but the miraculous ones wrought by Supernatural arts, were supernatural." Boyle; Works, v. 167.
The supernatural: That which is above or beyond the established course or laws of nature; that which transcends nature; supernatural agencies, influences, phenomena and the like.
Perhaps the broad nature of metaphysical before this past century explains a lot about the acceptance of pagan practices as religion before the time of Jesus and the blurred world between religion and magic, a condition that existed well into the 16th century AD if not more recently.
Possible fictional history tells us King Arthur ruled in a time when wizards and Druids shared a place of equality with priests, and during the same time period the non-fictional accounts of St. Patrick (387 AD to 493 AD) reportedly say he was trained as a Druid before becoming a priest. Notably he is the patron saint of witchcraft among other unusual areas.
By the 16th century AD Popes were still consulting shamans and oracles and Catholics like Nostradamus and St. Teresa of Avila were the most prominent psychics of the century and many more centuries to come, having to spend their lives in fear of the Spanish Inquisition, also Catholic.
So all of this is to prepare you for yet another carefully hidden document of history by a Benedictine Abbot named Johannes Trithemius. Johannes also happened to be a practitioner of Magic and as the following indicates, is an excellent example of the blend of Christianity, Hermetic Philosophy and the attendant "sciences" of magic, astrology, alchemy and Cabala.
Johannes was assigned by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian 1 to identify the spiritual forces or heavenly intelligences as they call it that guide the universe under God. The result was an astonishing formal Treatise written in 1508 defining the ages of the archangels and their impact on mankind.
The Seven Spirits According to God
Johannes Trithemius was born Johann Heidenberg in Trittenheim on the
in what is now the German state of Rheinland-Pfalz on February 1, 1462. His Latin name, Trithemius, derives from
Trittenheim, his city of birth. He broke
with his family to pursue a scholarly life and studied at Heidelburg.
Having taken refuge in the Benedictine abbey of Sponheim during a snowstorm he resolved to stay and at the age of 21 became its abbot. As Abbot of Sponheim, Trithemius studied, wrote and amassed a large library. In 1506 Trithemius left Sponheim and became the Abbot of the Monastery of St. Jacob in
. He died in 1516. Wurzburg
Trithemius' Work and Thought
The major works of Trithemius include Steganographia written circa 1499, Polygraphiae, a cryptographic work and De Septum Secundeis, a History of the World based on astrology, both of which were published in 1508.
Steganographia is primarily concerned with the sending of secret messages by angels, though it also touches on cryptography and a system of rapid learning. Trithemius sets forth a hierarchy of angels and spirits ruling over regions of the Earth as well as days and hours. Ultimately these angels are subject to the seven planetary angels, also set forth in De Septum Secundeis.
Trithemius is an excellent example of the Renaissance fusion of Christianity, Hermetic Philosophy and its attendant sciences of magic, astrology, alchemy and Cabala. His magical system depends on the sympathy and harmony between the three worlds of the material, celestial and angelic/Ideal.
What is true of all of the Renaissance Magi, with the possible exception of Giordano Bruno, is their adherence to Christianity, albeit of a rather heterodox nature. This insistence on the consonance between magic and Christianity is particularly pronounced in Trithemius, a Benedictine Abbot.
Trithemius says, "The word magic is the Persian term for what in Latin is called wisdom, on which account magicians are called wise men, just as were those three wise men who, according to the Gospel, journeyed from the East to adore, in his crib, the infant who was the Son of God in the flesh."
Nepiachus, cited in Braun, Trithemius and Magical Theology said Trithemius' work had considerable influence on later Renaissance writings on magic, particularly on Cornelius Agrippa. In his Three Books of Occult Philosophy Agrippa states that he conferred with Trithemius, "of diverse things concerning chemistry, magic and Cabalie, and of other things, which as yet lie hidden in secret sciences and arts."
Abbot of Sponheim
A TREATISE ON THE SEVEN SECONDARY CAUSES, I.E.,
INTELLIGENCES, OR SPIRITS, WHO MOVE THE SPHERES
ACCORDING TO GOD
Of the Heavenly INTELLIGENCIES
Governing the Orbes under GOD.
To the august and pious Maximilian 1, Emperor & Caesar by the Grace of God:
Renowned Caesar, it is the opinion of Ancients, that this lower World by ordination of the first Intellect (which is God) is directed and ordered by Supernatural Intelligences, to which Conciliator Hermes assents, saying, that from the Original or first beginning of heaven and earth, there were Seven Spirits assigned to the seven Planets. Each of these Spirits rules the World for a period of 354 years, and four months.
Many learned scholars have approved this assertion, which I do not guarantee, but only lay before you Most Blessed Majesty.
The first Angel or Spirit, that of Saturn is called Oriphiel, to whom God confided the government of the World from the beginning of Creation. Oriphel’s reign began March 15 in the first year of the World, and it endured 354 years and 4 months.
The name Oriphiel was given to him on account of his spiritual office, not his nature. Under his dominion men were crude and savage, did cohabitant together in deserts and uncouth places, in the homely manner of beasts of the wild. This needs no demonstration for it is clearly evident in the Text of the Book of Genesis.
The second guiding Spirit World is Anael, the Spirit of Venus, who following Oriphiel began to rule according to the influence of this Planet in the year of the world 354 the fourth month, that is, the 24th day of the month of June. Anael ruled the world 354 years, and 4 months, until the year from the Creation of the world 708 as appears to any that shall calculate the Age thereof.
Under the rule of this Angel, men began to be more civilized, built houses, erected cities, invented manual arts and began the manufacturing of weaving and spinning of yarns. They also indulged plentifully in the pleasures of the flesh, took unto themselves faire women for their wives. Neglecting God, they grew distant in many things from natural simplicity; they invented games and songs, set themselves to playing the harp (kithara), and did imagine all that had to do with the worship and purpose of Venus and her cult. And this wantonness of life in men did continue until the deluge, receiving the just punishments for their depravity.
The third ruler of the Spirit, Zachariel, the Angel of Jupiter, began to govern the world in the year of the Creation of Heaven and Earth 708, the eighth month, that is, the 25th day of the month of October. Zachariel ruled the World 354 years, 4 months, until the year of the World’s Creation 1060 inclusively.
Under Zachariel’s direction men began to take turns usurping Dominion over one another. They began to hunt, to make tents, to adorn their bodies with all different kinds of garments.
There arose a great division betwixt the good and evil men; the Pious invoking God, such as Enoch, whom the Lord took into Him in Heaven, while the wicked plunged into snares and pleasurable allurements of the flesh.
Men under the Dominion of Zachariel began to live more civilly, to submit to laws and commands of their Elders, and did distance themselves from their former barbarism. Under his rule Adam the first man died, leaving to all posterity an assured testimony, that necessarily we all must die.
Various arts and inventions of men did about this time first appear and manifest themselves, as historians have more clearly expressed.
The fourth Ruler of the World was Raphael, the Spirit of Mercury, whose rule began in the year of the Creation of Heaven and Earth 1063 the 24th day of February and he reigned 354 years 4 months. His dominion continued until the year of the World 1417 and fourth month. In these times writing was first found out, and letters excogitated in the form of trees and plants, later to be modified into more graceful shapes. The Nations varied or changed the face of their characters according to their own fancy.
The use of musical instruments, under the time and rule of this Raphael began to spread. Commerce and trade betwixt man and man was now first invented. A presumptuous, rude and simple audacity in these times begot Navigation or the manner of sailing from one place to another, and many such like things in one kind or other.
The fifth Ruler of the World was Samuel, the Angel of Mars, who began the 26th day of the month of June in the year of the World 1417 and swayed the rule of this World 354 years 4 months, until the year of the World 1771 and eighth month.
Under Samuel’s rule the empire and government of men imitated the nature of Mars. Also under the dominion of this Angel, the universal deluge of waters happened in the year of the World 1656 as evidently it appears by history out of the Book of Genesis.
It is a remarkable fact, as the ancient philosophers have told us, that so often when Samuel the Angel of Mars is ruler of the World, there ariseth notable changes of monarchy. Religions and sects do vary and are overturned. Laws are changed. Principalities and kingdoms are transferred to strangers, whom we may easily find out, by perusal of histories.
Notwithstanding Samuel such changes do not occur at the beginning or entrance of his dominion but manifest according to the disposition of his behavior or custom when he hath exceeded the middle time of his governance, which very thing is likewise to be true concerning the Angels of the other Planets, (as it may be manifested from histories). That is, the influence of the Angel’s powers reaches its peak when their stars reach the zenith of their revolution.
The sixth Ruler of the World is Gabriel the Angel of the Moon, who began after Samuel the Angel of Mars had finished his course, the 28th day of the month of October in the year of the World 1771 and eighth month. He rules the affaires of the World 354 years and 4 months, until the year of the World 2126.
Again in these times men were multiplied, and built many new cities. And we must note that the Hebrews do affirm that the General deluge was in the year of the World 1656 under the moderation of Mars. But the Septuagint interpreters, Isidorus and Beda, confirm the Deluge to be in the year of the World 2242 under the Rule of Gabriel, the Angel of the Moon, which seems unto me by multiplication to be rather closer unto truth, but to express my further conception hereof, is not the work of this present discourse.
Michael the Angel of the Sun was the 7th Ruler of the World, who began the 24th of February, in the year of the World according to common computation 2126, and he governed the world 354 years and four months, until the year of the age of the world 2480 and four months.
Under the Dominion of the Angel of the Sun even as histories consent with truth, Kings first began to appear amongst mortal men, of whom Nimrod was the first that with an ambitious desire of sovereignty, did tyrannize over his companions.
The worship of several Gods by the foolishness of men was now instituted, and they began to adore their petty Princes as Gods. Sundry arts also about this time were invented by men; to wit, the mathematics, astronomy, and magic. That worship which formerly was attributed to one God now began to be given to diverse creatures. The knowledge of the one true God, little and little, and because of the superstition of men, became forgotten.
About these times architecture was found out, and men began to use more policy both in their civil institutions and in their manners or customs of living.
From henceforth the eighth time in order, again Oriphiel the Angel of Saturn began to govern the World the 26th day of the month of June, in the year from the beginning of the world 2480 and four months. He continued his government of the world this second return, 354 years and four months, until the year of the world 2834 and eight months.
Under the rule of this Angel the nations were multiplied, and the earth was divided into regions, and many kingdoms instituted. The Towel of Babel was built, and the “Confusion of Tongues” then fell out.
Men were dispersed into every part of the earth, and men began to till and manure the earth more accurately, to ordain fields, sow corn, plant vineyards, to dig up trees, and to provide with greater diligence, what ever was more convenient for their food, and raiment.
From that time forward, first of all, amongst men, the discerning of nobility begun to be taken notice of; which was, when men in their manner of living, and in wisdom did excel the rest of men, undertaking trophies of glory from the great ones of the earth, as rewards for their merits.
From hence first of all, the whole world began to come into the knowledge of men, whilst every where the nations being multiplied, many Kingdoms did arise, and various differences of tongues did follow.
The ninth time in order and course, Anael, the Angel of Venus began again to sway the world the 29th day of October, and in the year of the Creation of Heaven and earth 2834 and 8 months: and he presided 354 years, four months, until the year of the World 3189.
In these times men forgetting the true God, began to honor the dead, and to worship their statues for God, which error hath infected the World more than two thousand years. Men did now devise curious and costly ornaments, for better trimming, and adorning their bodies.
They found out different kinds of musical instruments. Again men prosecuted too much the lust and pleasures of the flesh, instituting, and dedicating statutes and temples to their Gods. Witchcraft and incantations in these times were first excogitated by Zoroaster King of the Bactrians (and diverse others as well as he) whom Ninus King of
defeated in war.
In order the tenth time Zachariel the Angel of Jupiter, again began to rule the world the last day of February, in the year of the building, or framing the heaven and earth, 3189 and he moderated according to his custom, and manner 354 years, and four months, until the year of the world 3543 and four months.
These were joyful times, and might truly be called golden, wherein there was plenty of all manner of useful things, which much conduced for the increase of mankind, giving thereby exceeding beauty and adornment to the things of this World.
In like manner about this time, God gave to Abraham the Law of Circumcision; and first of all promised the Redemption of Mankind by the Incarnation of his one and only begotten Son. Under the government of this Angel, the Patriarchs first Founders of Justice were famous, and the righteous were divided from the ungodly, by their own proper endeavor and consent.
About these times in Arcadia, Jupiter grew famous, who was titled also Lisania, the Son of Heaven and God, a King, who first of all gave Laws to the Arcadians, made them very civil in their manners and behavior, taught them the worship of God, erected them temples, instituted priests, procured many advantageous benefits for mankind, for which his people so greatly benefit. He was by them called Jupiter, and after his death accounted for as a Deity or God.
He originated from the priestly sons of Heber, viz. Gerar, as ancient Histories do record to posterity. It is also reported under this Angel that Prometheus, also the son of Atlas, is reported to have found men rude and ignorant, and he made them wise and knowing, humane, courteous, accomplished in learning and manners.
He made images by art to move of themselves. He first found out the use of the ring, scepter, diadem, and all kingly ornaments.
In or about these times other jovial men did excel, men most wise and women also, who by their own understanding delivered many profitable inventions to mankind. When they died for the greatness of their wisdom they were reputed as Gods. Photoneus, who first of all instituted amongst the Greeks laws and judgements, also Sol (Apollo), Minerva, Ceres, and Serapis amongst the Egyptians, and very many besides.
In order the eleventh time Raphael the Angel of Mercury again undertook the ordering of the world the first day of the month of July, in the year of the world 3543 and fourth month; he continued in his commands 354 years, and four months, until the year of the Creation of heaven and earth 3897 and 8 months.
Verily in these times, as it evidently appears from the Histories of the Ancients, men more earnestly applied themselves to the study of wisdom, amongst whom the last learned and most eminent men, were Mercurius, Bacchus, Omogyius, Isis, Inachus, Argus, Apollo, Cecrops, and many more, who by their admirable inventions, both profited the world then, and posterity since.
Several Superstitions also about these times, concerning the worship of their Idols were instituted by men. Sorceries, incantations, and arts of framing Diabolical Images were now in a marvelous manner increased, and whatsoever either of subtly, or wit, that could possibly be attributed to the invention or cunning of Mercury about these times, did exceedingly increase.
Moses the wisest Commander of the Hebrews, expert in the knowledge of many things and arts, a Worshipper of one only true God, did deliver the people of
slavery of the Egyptians, and procured their liberty. About this time Janus first of all reigned in
after him Saturnus, who instructed his people to fat their grounds with soil or
dung, and was accounted or esteemed for a God. Italy
Near these times Cadmus found out the Greek Letters, or Characters, and Carmentis, the daughter of Evander, the Latine. God Omnipotent, under the Government of this Raphael, the Angel of Mercury, delivered by the hands of Moses, to his people a Law in writing which giveth a manifest testimony of our Saviour Jesus Christ, his future birth and nativity to be born in the flesh.
Here arose in the World a wonderful diversity of Religions: During these times, here flourished many Sybills, Prophets, Diviners, Soothsayers, or such as used inspection into the entrails of Beasts, Magicians, or Wise men, Poets, as Sybilla, Erythraea, she of the Isle of Delphos, she whom we call the Phrygian, because she lived in Phrygia with the rest.
Again in order the twelfth time Samuel the Angel of Mars, began to exercise his Dominion upon the world, the second day of the month of October, in the year of the world 3897 and eighth month, and his time of ruling, was 354 years, and four months from thence, until the year 4252.
Under Samuel’s empire and rule was that great and most famous Destruction of Troy in
Asia the less (Minor).
Also an admirable mutation and alteration of monarchies as many kingdoms
came together with new institutions, or moldings of many new cities, as Paris,
Mainz, Carthage, Naples, and very many besides these.
Many new Kingdoms were newly erected, or now had their first beginning, as that of the Lacedemonians, Corinthians, Hebrews, and divers more. Here in these times all over the whole world there were very great wars, and battles of kings and nations, and several alterations of empires. The Venetians from this time do compute and reckon the original both of their people and taking the city of
from the Trojans. Troy
And its observable that very many other Nations, as well in Europe as in Asia, pretend to have taken their original from the Trojans, to whom I thought good to give so much credit, as they themselves were able to persuade me was truth, upon sufficient testimony and proof.
The Arguments they produce concerning their nobility and antiquity are frivolous, being desirous to magnify themselves openly, as if there were no people, or nation in Europe, before the Destruction of Troy, or as if there had been no peasant, or clown amongst the Trojans.
Under the moderation also of this Planet, Saul was made first King of the Jews, after him David, whose son King Salomon, built in Jerusalem the Temple of the true God, the most famous and glorious of the whole world.
From hence the Spirit of God illustrating and enlightening his Prophets with a more ample illumination of his grace, they did not only foretell of the future incarnation of our Lord and Savior, but also many other things, as holy Scriptures do testify, amongst whom were Nathan son of King David, Gad, Asaph, Achias, Semeias, Asarias, Anan, and many others.
Homer the Greek Poet, writer of
Destruction, the Phrygian Dares and the Cretan Dictis who witnessed and have
likewise described it, are supported to have been alive near about these times. Troy
The thirteenth time in order, Gabriel the Spirit of the Moon, again undertook the ordering of this world the 30th day of January in the year from the beginning of the Universe 4252 and he presided in his Government 354 years, 4 months, until the year of the World 4606 and fourth month.
In this time many Prophets were famous and excelled amongst the Jews: Elisha, Micah, Abdias, with many others. There were many alterations of the Kingdom of the Jews. Lycurgus gave Laws and Ordinances to the Lacedemonians. Capetus, Sylvius. Lyberius Sylvius, Romulus Sylvius, Procas Sylvius, Numitor, Kings of Italy flourished during the moderation of this spirit. More Kingdoms also had their Original or foundation under him, as those of the Lydians, Medes, Macedonians, Spartans, and others did. The Monarchy of Assyrians under Sardanapalus now ended.
And in like manner the Kingdom of the Macedonians was consumed, or worn out. Sundry laws are imposed on men, the worship of the true God is neglected, and the Religion of false Gods too much propagated. The City of
is built under the
Dominion of this Spirit, in the year 1484 which year in order, was the 239 of
the Angel Gabriel. The Kingdom of the
Sylvans in Rome Italy now ended,
and that of
began in these times. Thales, Solon,
Cheilon, Periander, Cleobulus, Bias of Priene, and Pittacus, the seven wise men
(Seven Sages) of Rome
flourished, and from thence Philosophers and Poets came into high esteem. Greece
the first founder of the city reigned 37 years being a fratricide and a stirrer
up of sedition. After whom Numa
Pompilius continued that Kingdom in peace a full 42 years as he amplified the
worship of the Gods, and lived in the time of Hezekiah King of Romulus Judea.
About the end of the rule of this Angel of the Moon Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, took
and destroyed Zedechiah the King and carried away all the people as
captives. Jeremiah the Prophet, now famous;
foretold of this destruction and also their future delivery from Jerusalem . Babylon
When Gabriel had finished his course, again Michael Angel of the Sun did assume the fourteenth government of the World, who began the first day of the month of May, in the year of the World 4606 the fourth month, and did rule the World according to his own order 354 years and 4 months, until the year of the World's Creation 4960 and eighth month.
In the time of this Angels moderation of evil Merodach King of
, did restore both the liberty and
king to the people of the Jews, according to the direction of the Angel
Michael, who as Daniel wrote, stood for the Nation of the Jews, unto whom they
were committed by God. Babylon
In these times likewise the Monarchy of the Kingdom of the Persians began, whose first King Darius and the second Cyrus did bring to utter ruin that most powerful
in the days of Balthazar, as
Daniel and the Prophets had predicted. Kingdom of Babylon
In these times the Cumaean Sibyl was much spoken of and grew famous; who brought nine books to Tarquinius Priscus the King to be bought for a certain price, in which were contained the reason, order, and succession of future predictions of the whole commonwealth of the Romans.
But when the King refused to give her the price demanded, Sibyl (the King seeing it) burnt the first three books, demanding the same price for the other six; which when again he had denied to give her, she committed to be burnt three of those remaining, and would have done so by the rest; unless the King by persuasion and Council of others, had not redeemed them from consuming, giving the same price for the three last, for which he might have had the whole nine.
Moreover the Romans having abrogated Government by Kings constituted two Consuls to reign every year. Phalaris the Tyrant in these times occupied Sicilia.
Magique (magic) or natural philosophy was also in these times highly esteemed amongst the Kings of Persia. Pythagoras the Philosopher and very many others flourished amongst the Greeks. The
are reconstructed. Esdras the Prophet
restored from memory the books of Moses, burned by the Chaldeans, who were also
called Babylonians. The text was called
the Babylonian version. Jerusalem
Xerxes King of the Persians brought his Army against the Greeks, but had no success therein. The City of
is taken, burned, and destroyed by the Gauls except for the Capitol only
preserved by a goose, who stirred up the sleeping soldiers with his
honking. The Athenians had eminent wars
in these times. Socrates and Plato the
Philosophers lived now. Rome
The Romans lessened the power of their Consuls and instituted Tribunes and Aediles. Also about these times they were involved in many calamities.
Alexander the great after the expiration of the rule of Michael, reigned in
Macedonia, destroyed the Monarchy of the
Persians in Darius, conquered all Asia, and annexed it with part of Europe to his own Empire.
He lived 33 years, reigned 12 after whose death infinite wars and many
mischiefs followed, and his Monarchy became divided amongst four. Now amongst the Jews, first of all, they
began to contend for the Priesthood. The
began. Kingdom of Syria
After the Spirit of Michael had finished his course then the fifteenth time in order, Oriphiel the Angel of Saturn, the third time assumed the regulating of this World, the last day of the month of September, in the year from the building of the Universe 4960 and eighth month: and he did rule in Chief 354 years, 4 months, until the year of the World 5315.
Under whose moderation, the Punic war began betwixt the Romans and Carthaginians. The City of
was almost wholly
consumed by fire and water. The Brazen
Molten Image called Colossus, in height one hundred and twenty six feet fell
down, being shaken by an earthquake. At
or near this time the City of Rome
enjoyed peace one year after the Punic War, which Commonwealth had never been
without War in 440 years before. Rome
Many great wonders in these times were beheld in
Europe. Tame domestic cattle fled to the woods, it
rained blood, a fiery ball shined, appeared, and glistered out of heaven with
great noise and crackling. Mithridates
King of Pontus, and
held wars with the Romans for 40 years. The Kingdom of the Jews is restored,
which had interruption 575 years from the time of Zedechias until Aristobulus. Armenia
The people also of
called the Teutonic invaded the Romans and after many fights are overcome and
one hundred and threescore thousand (160,000) of them slain, besides
innumerable others of them who perished with their families under the rule of
Caius and Manlius the Consuls.
Notwithstanding this, many of the Romans were before this killed by them,
after which time Civil Wars did much shake the Roman Commonwealth, which
endured full 40 years. Germany
Three Suns appeared and were seen in
but not long ere they were reduced into one.
A very few years succeeding, Julius Caesar usurped the government of the
Romans, which Octavius Augustus after him amplified, and joined Asia, Africa
and Europe into one Monarchy. He reigned
36 years by whom, or whose means God gave peace to the whole World. Rome
In the year from the building of the City 751 and of Caesar Octavius Augustus the 42nd year, 245 years and the eighth month, the 25th of December, of the government of the aforesaid Oriphiel the Angel of Saturn, Jesus Christ the Son of God is born in Bethlehem of Judea, of Mary the Virgin.
Note how fair and wonderful the Ordination of Divine providence is for the World at first was created under the rule of Saturn his Angel Oriphiel and mercifully redeemed, restored, and made new again under his third government so that the great number and agreement of concurring actions may seem to administer no small belief to this manner of description, or setting forth, that this World is governed by the seven Angels of the Planets. For in the first Governance of Oriphiel there was one only Monarchy of the whole World, under his second (as we mentioned before) it was divided amongst many.
Again, during his third, (as is manifest) it was reduced into one, although, if we consider or measure time aright, it is manifest also that in the second government of Oriphiel there was but one only Monarchy, when the
was built. Tower of Babel
From this time forward the Kingdom of the Jews was quite taken away and the sacrifice of meat-offerings ceased, nor shall liberty be restored to the Jews before the third Revolution of the Angel Michael, and this shall be after the Nativity of Christ, in the year 1880 the eighth month. In the year of the World 7170 and eighth month many of the Jews in those times, and of the Gentiles also, shall embrace Christian Religion, most plain and simple men preaching the word of God, whom no humane institution, but a divine spirit hath inspired. The World shall then be brought to its first innocence of its simplicity, the Angel of Saturn Oriphiel governing the World every where.
Celestial things are mixed with earthly, many of the Christians for that faith which they did preach shall be slaughtered by the rulers of this World. About the ending of the rule of Oriphiel Jerusalem is destroyed by the Romans, and the Jews are dispersed into every Nation, there being massacred of them eleven hundred thousand (1,100,000), and four score thousand (80,000) sold for slaves, the residue of them fled; and so the Romans wholly destroyed
After that Oriphiel had finished his government, Anael the Angel of Venus, the sixteenth in order, the third time reassumed his Regiment of the World the last day of January, in the year of creating the Heaven & Earth 5315 but from the year of the birth of Christ 109, and he regulated the affairs of the World 354 years, 4 months, until the years of the World 5669 and 4 months, but of the Nativity of our Saviour Jesus Christ in the flesh 463.
And its remarkable that almost during the whole rule of this Anael the Angel of Venus, the
did flourish in her
persecutions, and prevailed, many thousands, of men being butchered for the
Faith of Christ. Moreover in these times
very many Heresies began to be broached in the Church, which were not
extinguished but after some time, and with labor and the blood of good men. Church of Christians
Many men were eminent about these times in all manner of learning, and such as were learned and eloquent Divines, Astronomers, Physicians, Orators, Historiographers, and men of like quality, not only amongst the Gentiles but also Christians.
At length the persecution by Infidels ceased after Constantine (Caesar) the Great, had assumed the Christian faith, in the year of the World 5539 after the middle of the Government of the aforesaid Anael the Angel of Venus.
Although those professing the religion and faith of Jesus Christ in some measure were now and then disturbed and molested by the Ungodly; yet notwithstanding the peace of the Church did remain free from molestation a long time.
From this time forward Mankind which from the time of Ninus the King for almost
the space of two thousand and three hundred years had most miserably gone astray about the worship of Idols was now revoked mercifully to the knowledge of only one God.
the space of two thousand and three hundred years had most miserably gone astray about the worship of Idols was now revoked mercifully to the knowledge of only one God.
Various arts of subtlety in these times were augmented, and increased in reputation according to the nature of Venus. For the manners of men are changed with the time, and the inferior bodies are disposed according to the influence of the superior bodies of the heavens.
The mind of man (verily) is free, and receives not the influence of the Stars, unless it doth too much accommodate his affection by attaching itself with the body. For the Angels who are the movers of the Orbs can neither destroy nor subvert any thing which nature itself hath constituted or framed.
A Comet of unwonted and unusual greatness did precede the death of
The Aryan Heresy in many Countries disturbed the Constantine . Toward the end of this Angels rule, in the
time of the Emperor Julian, Crosses appeared in the garments of men. In Asia and Holy Church wars followed along with pestilence
and famine in those places where apparitions of the Crosses appeared. Palestine
In these times also about the year of our Lord 360 the Franks or Franconians in
Germany had their Original, who afterwards
wasted Gaul, gave the name unto it of , having first overcome and
conquered the people thereof. The
description of France France in
greatness is long and wide, or of great circuit, whose metropolis Moguntia
sometimes was, now truly and only Herbipolis ( ). Mainz
The Bavarians, Suevians, the people of Rhine, Saxons, Thuringers, this day do occupy a great part of
under jurisdiction of the Papacy in some places. Moreover in the 280th year of
the governance of this Angel Anael, the Germany Roman Empire
began to decline, whilst the City Rome was taken and burned by the Goths. The Imperial seat was first moved into Greece under Constantine,
to , a
fatal deed that caused the declining of that whole Monarchy. For near the end of the rule of this Angel
Anael historians tell there did arise Radigifus, Alaricus, Atholfus, Kings of
the Goths, who were soon followed by Ganseric, King of the Vandals and Attila,
King of the Huns – all of whom invaded all over Europe and did most miserably
tear the Empire asunder, as is evident in these Histories. Byzantium
When Anael the Angel of Venus had finished his rule then Zachariel the Spirit of Jupiter did reassume the Universal Government of this World the seventeenth time, the first day of June, in the year of the World 5669 the fourth month, but in the year of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ 463 and four months; and governed in his turn 354 years and four months until the year of the World 6023 and eighth month, but of our Lord God 817.
Many men in these times out of their affection to Christian Philosophy betook themselves to live in the Wilderness. Many wonders occurred, comets, earthquakes, and it rained blood.
Merlin, born in Tumbe (
Caledonia) at the beginning of
Zachariel’s rule, predicted wonderful things in the beginning or entrance of
this Angels Government. Arthurus who
commonly is called Arthur, the most glorious King of Great Britain, who
overcame the Barbarians, restored peace to the Church, went away and conquered
in many battles, propagated the Faith of Christ, and subdued to his dominion
all Gaul, Norway, Denmark, and many other Provinces. He was the most glorious of all Kings that
lived in his time, who after many famous actions performed, did never more
appear, being expected to return by the for many years. In times past many praise-worthy songs were
published by the Bards of that people of wonderful Poesie, for whilst he
was in its most flourishing condition unto whom three times ten kingdoms were
In or near these times the several Orders of Monks began to multiply in the
Theodoric King of Goths being an Aryan did possess all Church of God , slaying
Boetius their Consul. All manners of
Estates were full of perturbation, as well the Empire as Church affairs, or
Church and Commonwealth were now in great distress. Italy
Zenon and Anastasius, Aryan Emperors in the East, Theodoric and his successors in
Italy, Honorius King of the Vandals in Africa did exercise no small Tyranny.
Clovis) King of France at length in Gaul being turned Christian, both overcame the Goths and
restored peace in many places, though not in every country and kingdom.
In the time of St. Benedict and year of Christ 500 or thereabouts, in the beginning of the government of this Angel Zachariel the Spirit of Jupiter, whose spirits’ property it is to change empires and kingdoms, which was done in this rule, histories do manifestly declare, and what himself could not perform, he ordained Raphael the Angel of Mercury, his successor, to perfect through Charlemagne, King of Frenchmen.
Many Kingdoms came to their end under these 350 years, the Goths, Vandals, Burgundians, Lumbards, Thuringers, Almains, Bavarians, and very many besides. Justinian the Emperor was the first about these times to beautify the Commonwealth very deservedly with his Laws. Many gallant and most admirable men flourished under Zachariel. Justinian built the
Temple of St. Sophia in Constantinople
consisting of 400 Towers.
About this time the Empire is divided and made Bipartite, and Ever and Anon is more and more oppressed with mischief. Many signs in heaven appeared about these times, as is easily collected from Histories. Kusro, King of the Persians took
. Later he was killed by Heraclius the
Emperor. Mahomet the Arabian in these
times about the year of Christ 600 introduced the Sect of Saracens, by which
Sect the Roman Empire of Asia is now quite extinguished. Jerusalem
Dagobert King of
English, at that time called Saxons (whom in battle he overcame). Its
remarkable that little by little Christianity about these times began to fail
in Asia and Africa, upon entrance of the Sect of the Saracens therein, which
now had almost poisoned the whole world except France Europe
where the Order of St. Benedict spread the Christian religion.
About the year of our Lord God 774 Crosses appeared in the garments of men and not long after the Roman Empire is divided, one part of the monarchy passing into Charlemagne who was of the Franks Nation in
. He preserved the Empire and Church from
perishing and fought many famous battles.
The name of Western Gaul, or Germany Westphalia’s
in Saxon after his victory first had its beginning.
In the eighteenth place after finishing the rule of Zachariel, the Angel of Jupiter, Raphael the spirit of Mercury undertook the disposing of this worlds affairs the third time, on the second day of November in the year of the Creation of the World, 6023 eighth month, and he swayed the scepter of the World 354 years, four months, until the years of the world 6378 and of our Lord God 1171.
In the first beginning of this rule of Raphael the Angel of Mercury, the Monarchy of the
(as we mentioned before) was translated to Charlemagne the Great. After Charlemagne his son Lodowick ruled 25
years who after dying, his sons contending amongst themselves, did again weaken
the strength of the Empire.
is twice scourged by the Saracens. Under
Lodowick II it rained blood from Heaven in Rome , by the space of three whole
certain village with all its buildings and inhabitants was in a moment swept
away by a horrible gaping or opening of the earth. About the year of our Lord God 910 there were
many great motions in Italy,
fell from the Empire of the Franks or Franconians, and ordained proper kings
for themselves of their own election.
The first whereof was Berengarius the Duke of Fonolivium, after whom
seven in order succeeded, near upon fifty years, until the passing of the
Empire to the Germans. Italy
The first Emperor that was thereof was Otto, from which time the Empire began to be reformed, unto whom Otto II his son and his nephew Otto III after succeeded in the Empire. Under Otto III the Hungarians are converted to the Christian Faith but Otto III dying without children instituted after his death the Electors of the Empire in the year of Christianity 1002 even as they remain to this present day.
is again taken by the
Saracens. Many strange sights are seen
in the air, in the Heavens, in the Earth and sea, and in waters. Jerusalem
Otto III being dead, Henry I by election of the Princes succeeded and reigned 20 years. He founded the
. His wife, Kunegund, died a virgin and was
famous for her glorious miracles. After
Henry Konrad, first Duke of the Franks is chosen Emperor and ruled 20
years. Godfrey, Count of Bouillon,
recovered the Holy Land and City of Church
from the hands of the Infidels. Jerusalem
Before the end of Raphael’s rule many signs and omens were seen and a little time after the nation of the Tartars went beyond the bounds of their own country and did many mischiefs to the Empire of Rome.
There was famine, pestilence, and earthquakes in the Empire. Three suns were seen in the East, and as many Moons. In the year of our Lord God 1153
I called Barbarossa began to reign and ruled 33 years beginning in the 336 year
of Raphael. He did many noble exploits
and enlarged the strength of that Empire, performed sundry wars with great
success, in whose ninth year the Egians and Lituotrians were converted to the
Faith of Christ. Frederick
Samuel the Angel of Mars in order, the nineteenth time came to accept the governance of the universal world, it being now his third return, and this he did the third day of March in the year of the World 6378 and he regulated mundane affairs 354 years four months, until the year of the World 6732 four months, and of our Lord God 1525.
Under whose predominance many wars were all over the whole world, by which means infinite thousands of men perished and sundry kingdoms lost their former bounds. Emperor Frederick I had many differences with the Princes of Italy, many controversies arose, sundry great battles were fought, and many thousands of Romans perished.
Frederick did wholly subvert . Leige is destroyed. Milan
is again taken by the Saracens. The
Empire of the Tartans grew the greatest in the whole world about these
times. This was a true calamity for the
world and continues until this day. Jerusalem
, Henry his Son
is elected Emperor. On Henry’s death a schism confounds that Empire under
Philip and Otto. Many battles followed
in the confines of Frederick Germany,
at Argentine, Cologne, Lieden, Spires
in Wurtemburg and all over the Kingdom.
The sect of the Mendicant Friars began in these times, in the 40th year, or thereabouts of Samuel, from whence it is most apparent that all things are done by providence. The Saracens fought many battles against the Christians in Asia and
is taken by the Germans. Baldwin Earl of
Flanders is instituted Emperor. In
Almain more then twenty thousand young men are drowned in the sea by pirates,
seduced by a vain spirit that did give forth they would recover the Holy Land.
Spain many shepherds or keepers of cattle united
themselves together, coming to
despoiling the clergy of their property and livelihoods, the common people
taking part with them, or being well pleased with it. But when they extended their hands to take
away the goods of the Laity, they were quite cut off and destroyed. Paris
In the year of Christ 1212 Frederick II is elected, he reigned 33 years, and did many acts against the Church. In the year 1238 an eclipse and a continuous earthquake undid many thousands of men. Frisia also by continuous incursions of the sea, was almost wholly submerged and there did perish more then one hundred thousand men and women. The Tartars devastated
Hungary and Poland, and conquered the Greater and many
regions besides. Armenia
In the year of Christ 1244 a certain Jew digging in the ground at Toledo in Spain, found a book, in which it was written, in the third world Christ shall be born of the Virgin Mary and shall suffer for the salvation of man. The man believing converted immediately and was baptized. It was the third rule of the Angel of Saturn, concerning which, as we have shown, in the beginning of whose reign Christ was born of a Virgin.
During this period of Samuel the Popes of Rome, deposing the Emperor Frederick, left the Empire vacant 28 years, until the election of Rudolph, Count of Hapsburg, chosen by election of the princes in favor of other princely candidates: Henry, Count of Schwarzenburg at Thuringia; William, Earle of Holland; Konrad the Son of Frederick; Alphonzo, King of Castille; Richard Earl of Cornwall and brother to the King of England. Many evils were multiplied upon the face of the Earth.
At or near this time about the year of our Lord God 1260 the Confederacy of the Swiss began, a small people in number, but increased with time. They have slain many of their nobility and being a warlike people have banished and frighten away many others of their nobles from their proper habitations, whose Commonwealth is now known to all the people of Germany.
In the year of Christians 1273 Rudolf of Hapsburg is constituted Emperor by Election of the Princes. He reigned 18 years, the best of men, prudent in all manners of affairs, from whom afterwards descended all the Dukes of Austria. The Tartans invading the Lands of Christians, Constantinople and
brought infinite damage to the Christians. Greece
The Saracens do occupy many cities in
and destroy more than four hundred thousand Christians. Rudolf being dead, Adolf of Nassau is elected
Emperor and he governed six years.
Albert, Rudolf’s son, defeated Adolf at and killed him, then was chosen Emperor
in the year of Christ 1298. He governed
ten years and was slain by his brother’s son. Worms
The Order of the Knights Templar by command of Pope Clement the fifth is destroyed. The Isle of Rhodes is recovered by Christians out of the hands of the Saracens after a siege had continued four whole years. Albert being slain by his nephew; Henry VIII is constituted the eighth Emperor, being Count of Luxembourg, who reigned 5 years. After him Louis IV of
reigned 32 years, beginning in the year 1315 unto whom the Popes of Rome gave
him the crown. Bavaria
Frederick Duke of
opposed them but he was defeated. After
Louis, Charles IV, King of Bohemia is constituted Emperor; who converted the
Bishop of Prague into an Archbishop and he reigned 31 years. There were most fearful Earthquakes. Austria
Charles did institute many things in favor of the Princes Electors, concerning their customs, which were not in use formerly. Gunther, Count of Schwarzenburg styled himself King and opposed Charles the Emperor, but prevailed naught at all against him.
After Charles, his son Winceslaus governed 22 years, after whom Jodocus Marques of Moravia succeeded. Sigmund Cozen, German of Winceslaus was disposed, Leopald Duke of
, eight Earls and more than
4000 soldiers fighting against the Swiss were all by them slain. During the rule of Winceslaus King of Bohemia
Emperor, the Tenets of John Huss had their beginning. Winceslaus being deposed,
Rupert, Count Palatine of Rhine, and Duke of Bavaria was elected, and ruled 10
In the year of our Lord God 1369 the Christians did engage themselves in a war against the Saracens, which succeeded ill by reason of the French men’s arrogance: because more than one hundred thousand of our men did die in that war; besides such as were made captives, amongst whom was John, Duke of Burgundy. Many were the wars of those times.
In the year of the World 1407 Sigmund is made Emperor, and governed 27 years. He endeavored to waste and destroy the
thereby to extinguish heresy,
but it little availed him. The Kingdom of Bohemia is most
grievously wasted and consumed by the English and Burgundians. Kingdom
Sigmund being departed of this life, Albert, Duke of Austria, Sigmund's son in Law, succeeded in the year of Christians 1438 and only reigned two years, an admirable man and worthy of the Empire. He being deceased, Frederick III, Duke of Austria, the Son of Ernestus, by election of the Princes, is chosen Emperor and reigned 56 years. A man of a Divine soul and peaceable conversation, who began to rule in the year 1440.
In the year of Christians 1453
taken by the Turks by Treachery of a certain Janvens. A little after by degrees all fell
from their Christian faith. For a little
time after many Kingdoms and Provinces of the Christians were harrowed, wasted,
and taken by the Turks. Many and most
grievous wars the Christians had amongst themselves about this time, in Greece France, England,
Saxony, Westphalia, Prussia,
, and other places. In these times the art of printing was newly
found out, and invented at Flanders, Sweden Mainz, the metropolis
a wonderful industry and not without the special gift of the Deity. Germany
In the year of Christ 1456 the Turks were overthrown in
by the faithful Christians,
whereof many of them perished. The
Pilgrimage of young men to Saint Michael was wonderful. There were Earthquakes in the Hungary , and more than forty thousand
people perished thereby. Kingdom of Naples
In the year of the World 1462
Mainz is taken and spoiled
being the metropolis of the Franks in . Charles, Duke of Germany Burgundy
overcame the Franks in the year 1465 and after that in 1467 he destroyed the
cities Dinant and . In 1473 he entered Liege Gelderland,
and with much valor obtained it and in like manner all the whole Dukedom of
A comet during all the month of January 1472 appeared. Charles, Duke of Burgundy not long besieged the Town of
one whole year’s space; in or about
1474 whose magnanimous Prince was slain in war in 1467. The Turks took away from the Christians about
these times many of their cities, Nigropont in Euboia, the Kingdom of Bosnia,
Dukedom of Speta, Achaia, Mysia, and more Kingdoms besides these in the East. Nussicum
In the year 1476 a convocation of fools was in Franconia of Germany near Niclaushausen, full of errors. In the year 1480 they besieged the Rhodians with a powerful Army but prevailed not; departing the same year from
Rhodes, they took
the city Hydruntum, more than twelve thousand Christians being slain there,
only 22 soldiers escaping. The next year
Mahomet Emperor of the Turks died, to whom Bajazet his first born succeeded in
the Kingdom, having reigned now at this present 27 years.
In the year of Christ 1486 Maximilian the Son of Frederick was instituted King of Romans at Frankford, and saluted Julius Caesar by the Pope in 1508 who instituted the Order of Warfare of Saint George purposely against Heretics and Turks. He brought the Swiss low by war and even to this day makes war against the rebellious Sicambrians. He will be fortunate against all such as break their Leagues or Covenants with him.
The King of France after his wonted manner, a constant persecutor of the Empire, is discovered to plot new devices against it. The Omnipotent protects those assigned to the Government of Samuel. In the year 1508 the Venetians, rebels to the Empire of Caesar, are threatened with War and Banishment. Punishment of stubbornness will be the reward of an advised satisfaction. About the end of this third rule of Samuel, the image of alteration shall pass to the first and shall be the Perdition of many men for unless Aries be reduced again, (God assisting) (ad algos) there will be transition of one monarchy, or of some great kingdom.
A strong sect of Religion shall arise, and be the overthrow of the Ancient Religion. It's to be feared least the fourth beast lose one head. Mars first of all in the rule of Samuel foretold the Flood. In his second return, the siege and destruction of
. In his third toward the end thereof will be
found great want of virtue from matters preceding may be judged what will or
ought to succeed. Troy
This third rule of Mars shall not be consummated without Prophecy, and the institution of some new Religion, from this year of our Lord 1508 here yet remains until the end of the rule of Samuel 17 years wherein signs and figures shall be given, foreshadowing the beginnings of evil.
For in the year 1525 Crosses were seen in the garments of men by the space of ten years before, what is past already shall have their consequences. Thirteen years from hence being justly summoned away, thou shalt surrender thy place and thou shalt revive again far greater to me, after the Fates in the third; unless it be lawful thou obscure thyself in a cloud.
The twentieth time in order, Gabriel Angel of the Moon received the moderation of the World, in the year of the World 6732 the fourth month, and fourth day of June in the year of Christ 1525 and he shall regulate the world 354 years, and four months, until the year of the world 7086 and eight months, but of our Lord Christ 1879 and 11 months (the twenty-first time in order and third rule of the Angel Michael).
The future Series of this Rule requireth Prophecy. Most sacred Caesar, I have not written these things assertively, or that we must believe it by any means whatever with the faith of Orthodox Divinity. There are some who believe these periods correspond to Lunar months, which if thou hold fit to consent unto, then those things I have written must be changed.
I bear witness with my own proper hand, and confess with my own mouth, that in all these things delivered I believe nothing and admit only what the Catholic Church has approved by the authority of its Doctors. The rest, I refute and contemn as vain, feigned and superstitious.
Finis Johannes Trithemius
Christian Years of the Third Cycle of the Ruling Angels
Reign Angel Planet
45 BC-109 CE Oriphiel Saturn
109 CE-463 CE Anael Venus
463 CE-817 CE Zachariel Jupiter
817 CE-1171 CE Raphael Mercury
1171 CE-1525 CE Samuel Mars
1525 CE-1879 CE Gabriel Moon
1879 CE-2233 CE Michael Sun